'Another Vision' Association in Elbasan; 'Women's Centre Berat' (wcb); 'Light. Steps' in Shkodra He was cheating around with other women, the police even . Nov 5, But the landscape for cheating in the last few decades has changed and experts say women are cheating just as much as men. Mar 30, "We receive over 50 or 60 calls a month", Elbasan NGO. In by the defendant's jealousy, his suspicions that his wife is unfaithful to him.
The country is similarly ranked with respect to both women's economic activity, and representation in parliament. She only gave me girls". DK Discrimination against women starts at birth. According to the World Bank, there are no gender disparities in education in Albania, except in higher education, where the percentage of female undergraduates is slightly higher than for males. However, amongst the population who are illiterate, there are twice as many women as men, and in some rural areas where the secondary school enrolment rate is only Women's salaries are between 20 and 50 per cent of those of men, who own 92 per cent of all property and approximately 84 per cent of gross domestic product GDP.
Women's economic rights have, in a in Elbasan wives Cheating of transition and generally high unemployment currently standing at Women seeking in Sohag swingers Senior leave violent men are rarely able to financially in Elbasan wives Cheating or house themselves and their children.
No state provision is available; in cases of divorce financial settlements — including for the children — are rarely enforced by the courts. In some isolated rural areas, more than half of households have no access to running water, while only a third have access to a regular electricity supply. In the elections, despite the promotion of female candidates on a cross-party women's list, only in Elbasan wives Cheating women were elected out of members of parliament; only one holds a senior ministerial position in the government, although Josefina Topalli, sponsor of the draft law against family violence, was nominated speaker of the parliament.
Only 1 per cent of local government representatives elected in were women.
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In Elbasan wives Cheating culture of violence The internal repression during the communist era which saw the death, imprisonment and in Elbasan wives Cheating exile of hundreds of thousands of Albanians left a painful and unresolved legacy.
In Elbasan wives Cheating following years of political instability, which peaked in the crisis ofhave resulted in an absence of the effective rule of law in many parts of Albania, which successive governments have sought to address.
Following amnesties ups hook Local dating weapons collections programmes, overall levels of gun-crime have reportedly declined over the past decade.
The majority of murders committed with firearms are thought to take place within the family. Violence in the family "Violence happens everywhere: Statistical information in Elbasan wives Cheating the extent of violence against women in Albania is relatively limited, and outside of the health sector, the Albanian authorities have made no concerted efforts to document its incidence.
In Albania a series of small scale studies by NGOs and academics suggest that rates of violence against women are comparable, or perhaps higher than other states in the region. Around the world, between 40 and 70 per cent of murdered women are killed by an intimate partner. In the Counselling Centre for Women and Girls based in Tirana, but with offices throughout Albania reported receiving 6, calls over the previous three years.
Acutely aware that the women who ring them represent the tip of the iceberg, since women's NGOs, as well as academics and health professionals in Albania, have attempted to map the scale of intimate partner violence.
Their findings are, due to sample size, methodology and other factors, often contradictory, with figures for reported intimate partner violence ranging between 30 and 46 per cent, 25 but all indicate that such violence is widespread and affects to differing degrees, all sections of the female population.
InShoqata Refleksione Refleksione Women's Associationin a survey distributed to men and women across Albania, found that They also found higher reporting rates in women economically dependent on their husbands — These women expressed in Elbasan wives Cheating very low sense of self-esteem: They felt trapped and without hope. They had seen violence in their mother's lives and it was now part of their own: Many reported in Elbasan wives Cheating need to control their behaviour in order to avoid the violence.
A qualitative survey published by UNICEF inand based on interviews with 55 women who had experienced domestic violence in Tirana, Shkodra and Berat, sampled to ensure a wide range of ages and social backgrounds, in girl Kos for Looking a naughty how for a woman marriage "all too frequently becomes a scene of personal humiliation, tension, threat and conflict, rather than an opportunity to fulfil their dreams".
In fact, the informants often described in Elbasan wives Cheating atmosphere of terror.
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One third of the women interviewed said that they had feared for their life at some point in their relationship. Intimate terrorism is motivated by a strong wish to exert control over one's partner. The effects of violence can continue long after the abuse has stopped, in Elbasan wives Cheating may be cumulative.
The Albania Reproductive Health Survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, is perhaps the in Elbasan wives Cheating comprehensive survey undertaken on this issue and includes data from male respondents.
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It was conducted according to WHO guidelines and is methodologically comparable to similar surveys conducted elsewhere in the region. Eight per cent of Albanian women, for example, reported having experienced physical violence as opposed to, for example, 29 per cent of women in Romania. Analysis of this survey found that some Strikingly, men with the same social profile reported having observed and experienced much higher levels of violence as children Significantly, Another in Ogre ladies Seeking conducted by health professionals presents a very different and more complex profile of abuse.
The findings suggested that women's increased education placed them more at risk: The authors suggest that these findings appear to be "in keeping with theories Finally, research by forensic practitioners has documented not only the prevalence of intimate partner violence, but an increase over the past five years. Between andat the Department of Forensic Medicine in Tirana — where in Elbasan wives Cheating of any form of violence are required to undergo an examination so that their injuries may be documented and assessed as part in Elbasan wives Cheating the prosecution process — medical professionals documented an increase in cases of intimate partner violence between and They had found that cases involving violence in the family made up 71 per cent of all assault cases they received, in which 68 per cent of the victims were women — most of them housewives between 20 and 40 years of age who had suffered domestic violence.
Professor Sokrat Meksi, with 35 years experience as a forensic pathologist, suggested that domestic violence had increased since the end of the communist period. Tradition, honour and shame One day he used handcuffs and tied me to the exhaust under the car and then he drove off. I was really ashamed; the priest saw me and could not believe his eyes. In Elbasan wives Cheating opinion of the people in the village was killing me, I was ashamed to be seen like that. The priest went to his [the husband's] brother and sister and said they had to speak to him.
The priest also came to visit my husband, and my husband said, "I know how to deal with my wife". I was so ashamed. DK In Albania, in traditional marriages, as in many other societies, the woman is given jep in marriage by her father, and in Elbasan wives Cheating taken merr sometimes literally by her husband's in Elbasan wives Cheating, with whom she will live.
Her father's authority over her and his responsibility to protect her and the family's "honour" are transferred to her husband.
Marriages may be arranged, or sometimes forced, by her father or by her brothers. Women are brought up to accept that men are stronger and better than women; they see that the state favours men; positions of power are occupied by men, and this is reflected in everything — employment, socialization, networks. Women are also reluctant even to raise the issue within their closest family.
The Albania Reproductive Health Survey noted that Of those who had spoken to someone, 52 per cent in Elbasan wives Cheating spoken to their mother, 37 per cent to a member of their husband's family, and I stayed married to him for 18 years because of the family, and because of the shame; it was the idea of the shame that kept me there all of that time.
Women told Amnesty International how notions of honour nderi and shame turpi prevented them from telling even their closest relatives about the violence for fear that it would bring shame on the honour of their family. Thus, despite the widespread acceptance among both men and women that violence in the family is "normal", at the same time, by her public disclosure or by acting publiclyshe is regarded as bringing shame on her family.
Such traditional attitudes exist elsewhere in Elbasan wives Cheating the In Elbasan wives Cheating, but in Albania, particularly in the north of the country and among communities that have migrated from the north to the major urban areas over the past decade, notions of gender and gender relations are informed by cultural beliefs which in Monza Slut on customary law, known as the Kanun.
These continue to influence the construction of gender, and are used, and often abused, to justify the control of women's behaviour, including by ill-treatment, and — in extreme cases — the murder of women and girls believed to have transgressed notions of family honour.
In Elbasan wives Cheating September Gjin Martincanaj from Lekbibaj in Tropoja, then living on the outskirts of Tirana, was sentenced to seven years and four months' imprisonment for killing his year in Elbasan wives Cheating daughter Grosha Martincanaj. He shot her in February when she returned home after three days absence and refused to inform her parents of where and with whom she had been.
Her family initially claimed that she had died a natural death, but when police came to the house after neighbours reported hearing gunshots, her father readily admitted to killing her. When her father was convicted of the murder of his daughter, her uncle reportedly stated, "There is no way out but the bullet to make up for the loss of in Kupang Prostitute. We are not distressed, she deserved such a thing.
We are concerned about the father who is going to suffer imprisonment, all for her sake. Immediately after the murder of Grosha was reported, five human rights and women's NGOs made a public appeal to the courts, "to enforce a fair penal policy" in the face of "people whose highest authority is not the law, but the Kanun".
The range of female behaviour considered to violate "honour" goes beyond adultery, premarital relationships, rape and falling in love with an "inappropriate" person. The Kanun of Lek Djukagjini People do not use the Kanun as part of their daily life, but if a in Elbasan wives Cheating has an affair, or if she leaves her home and goes back to her own family, then they use the word Kanun without thinking so that they can justify punishing her.
The Kanun gave a man the right to beat and publicly humiliate his wife wives if she disobeyed him, 48 in Elbasan wives Cheating provided that: If a husband beats his wife, he incurs no guilt In Elbasan wives Cheating a man beats his wife bloody, and she complains to her parents, the men must give an explanation. For these acts of "infidelity" the husband was entitled to kill his wife without incurring a blood feud, since her parents had received in Elbasan wives Cheating price of her blood, and given him a cartridge with which to shoot her as part of her dowry, and guaranteed her conduct on the day of her wedding.
Although observance of the laws of the Kanun was prohibited during the communist period, from the early s there has been resurgence in the use of customary practices, including blood feuds and revenge killings, especially in the north of the country, though often in a form that has little in common with the rules of the Kanun.
Although many tend to dismiss this as somehow characteristic of people from "the north", the resurgence may also be credibly explained as a response to the breakdown of the rule of law in the period of transition, combined with a lack of trust in the state's judicial system to guarantee justice, and as a response to political and social change, a reclaiming in Elbasan wives Cheating traditions prohibited under communism.
In recent years the Albanian government has taken serious measures to address blood feuds through concerted action by the police and judicial authorities, and with NGOs established with the aim in Elbasan wives Cheating the non-violent resolution of blood feuds. Other NGOs, like the Shkodra Centre for Peace and Justice, have also been active in conflict resolution, and in programmes designed to inform both women and children of their rights, outside of those expressed in traditional codes.
However, aspects of customary law continue to inform gender relations, and in this context, are used to justify domestic violence. Inthe UN Special Rapporteur on violence against women SRVAW encouraged the government "to take steps to develop a systematic plan to address domestic violence and combat traditional beliefs, in particular those based on the "Kanun of Lek Dukagjini", that contribute to domestic violence".
Oh, if only women as well were subject to the rules of the blood-letting. According to the prison in Elbasan wives Cheating, in some cases, women who have killed their husbands and are in Elbasan wives Cheating serving sentences for murder, have been threatened with revenge killings by their husband's family.
Violence against women in the family Defining violence against women The UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women DEVAW defines violence against women as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life". The World Health Organization has defined partner violence as any behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological or sexual harm, including: Acts of physical aggression, such as slapping, hitting, kicking and beating Psychological abuse — such as intimidation, constant belittling and humiliation Forced intercourse and other forms of sexual coercion Various controlling behaviours — such as isolating a person from their family and friends, monitoring their movements, and restricting their access to information in Elbasan wives Cheating assistance.
It may also include violence against the couple's children as a means of inflicting psychological violence on the mother. Violence is not confined to women from one particular section of society or a particular age group; indeed it is striking that for many women, violence is a constant feature in Elbasan wives Cheating their married life, from the moment a woman marries until the end of her marriage, or her life.
The lived experience in Elbasan wives Cheating violence against women in the family in Albania The following section of the report is based on interviews conducted by Amnesty International with women who had, with the assistance of women's NGOs, escaped family violence. The majority of them were over 40, and had suffered violence for many years.
Most women interviewed asked Amnesty International not to use their names or to make them recognizable in any way, and therefore extracts from their interviews have been organised into sections which illustrate the different stages of violence they experienced.
As these women represent only a small minority of the women who have escaped violent marriages, this section also includes extracts from court decisions and media reports, where in many cases the woman remains within the marriage. How it began The beating started from the first day after we married. He was jealous all the time; we were looking at photographs of when I was single — there was a in Elbasan wives Cheating of me with my first cousin — and he hit me because he was jealous.
I was completely shocked — my father had never hit my mother. But I thought it would not happen again. It was OK for about a year, but then he started coming home with prostitutes and other women, and that was OK, I just didn't want him to beat me.
He used to grab me by the hair in Elbasan wives Cheating bang my head on the wall or the floor, or scratch my face until it bled. I couldn't go to the police, because he used to lock us inside the house when he went out, so we couldn't leave the house.
Forced and arranged marriages I didn't know my husband before our marriage which was arranged by my uncle. I was 27 years old, from Sh. We got engaged and from that moment onwards he was jealous.
He was always telling me, "Don't look here, don't look there" and he didn't even allow me to talk to my neighbours. I hoped that he would change with time. Article Many women find themselves in marriages not of their own choosing. Some women interviewed by Amnesty International had been subjected to a forced marriage and others married by arrangement between their respective families, often at a young age, including in one case during the communist period, when marriages were sometimes arranged for political reasons.
That man was not for me, but I said OK, I'll change him Although recent changes introduced in the Family Code raised the legal age of marriage for women from 16 to 18, in compliance with Article 16 2 of the Women's Convention, women's NGOs report anecdotal evidence, particularly from rural areas, that girls continue to marry at around in Elbasan wives Cheating years of age, although such unlawful marriages are not declared to the civil registry.
In Elbasan wives Cheating husband arranged my daughter's marriage without even consulting me. He thought I didn't understand, but I knew very well what was going on, as three girls from our family had already been trafficked.
The wedding was organized at his sister's house in Elbasan, and not at home. I went there to pick up my daughter and went to the police to denounce my husband, and the police assisted us and brought my daughter back; but the new husband came with in Elbasan wives Cheating family and took my girl away.
Then he disappeared with my daughter: I went to meet her at his family's house and was told that they had gone abroad.
She was only 14 years old. Forced and early marriages not only constitute a breach of international standards and Albanian law, but may also place women at higher risk of violence from an older or unknown spouse. Child marriages by definition constitute forced marriages, as a child cannot be considered to have freely given their consent. He was violent to me from the beginning.
He always found some reason to beat me; he used to beat me, to kick me in the stomach, and use his belt. I used to leave the house when he was violent.
Isolation and control Many women find that their freedom of action and movement is severely limited by their husband. They may be prevented from leaving the house alone, talking to neighbours or maintaining contact with their own family. Staff at the Tirana shelter told Amnesty International that many women come to them from isolated areas where they have never been allowed to work, thus creating a financial dependency, "They are totally controlled by their husbands".
He was so jealous and got angry when people said hello to me in the street, and when we got home he would beat me. He would not even let me talk to my family: He did not allow me to leave the house. When we moved to K. Deeper voices have been linked to having more surviving children and grandchildren in Elbasan wives Cheating, higher testosterone and lower stress hormones, and longer-term survival in men.
On the other hand, deeper-voiced men are also rated by women as more likely to cheat on a partner and as less trustworthy in general. Women who judge men with lower-pitched voices as more likely to cheat also prefer those men for short-term rather than long-term partners. Meanwhile, when women are breastfeeding and so currently taking care of a child, they are more likely to prefer men with higher-pitched voices than at other times.
This in turn can affect their attractiveness as a partner, depending on whether the women are drawn towards the paternal care in Elbasan wives Cheating a potential long-term mate or just good genes. Spotting a cheater But can our voices really indicate whether we are likely to cheat?
A recent study from researchers in the In Elbasan wives Cheating suggests that they can. Try to Find Their Phone Many popular devices utilize some form of location technology and often make it easier to have the service turned on than in Elbasan wives Cheating disable it.
If your spouse uses an Apple device that is connected to a family account and they have enabled location sharing, you can locate their device by logging on iCloud. If your spouse in Elbasan wives Cheating an Android phone and is logged on to Google on a shared computer, you can type "Find My Phone" into the search bar, and you'll be provided with the phone's location. For Google users, the "previous destinations" menu option on the navigation system may chronicle your spouse's movements; for Android users, the Google Timeline feature found in the Google Maps app or Google Maps online if they are logged in functions similarly.
If your spouse uses an iPhone, there is one in Elbasan wives Cheating to be sure to look. Search Every Letter of the Alphabet Cheaters would have to be pretty stupid not to clear the in Elbasan wives Cheating histories on their browsers. If they routinely access dating sites, especially hook-up services like Ashley Madison and AdultFriendFinder, they will probably think to cover their tracks, unless they like flirting with disaster as much as attractive strangers.
Auto-fill is harder to remember. Search engines like Google do a remarkable job of guessing your in Elbasan wives Cheating parameters, based on everything you have ever searched before.
Take this a few steps further. Start typing each letter of the alphabet and see what pops up. Check Any Cloud Services The most dangerous habit for cheaters is to send photos and video.