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Ghazni Prostitute in

Profound sorrow and guilt seem to plague many of the sex workers I in Ghazni city), as well as to local Afghans, to earn money through prostitution,” a Taliban. It also lists the names of the famous prostitutes of Delhi. . a place between Ghazni and Lamaghan, and inflicted a severe defeat on the enemy. Mahmud of Ghazni was Lammering at the gates of India, the reins of. Kashmir were in the . 'Samaya Matraka' or the autobiography of a prostitute. All this led to.

No historian has contradicted this view. Mahmud desired wealth for the sake of wealth. Besides, he needed it also to continue his policy of expansion of the empire in Central Asia. Therefore, the wealth of India was alluring for him and he repeated his attacks to acquire more and more wealth Ghazni Prostitute in India.

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Besides, Mahmud had Ghazni Prostitute in political purpose also. The Ghaznavids and the Hindushahis were fighting against each other since the reign of Alptigin and the Hindushahi rulers Ghazni Prostitute in attacked Ghazni thrice. It was necessary for Mahmud to destroy this aggressive and powerful neighbour. Therefore, he himself pursued an aggressive policy against it. The success against the Hindushahi kingdom encouraged him to penetrate deeper into India.

Like all other great rulers of his age. Mahmud also desired to get fame by his conquests and victories and that also constituted one reason of his attacks on India. Pandey has opined that another aim of Mahmud was to procure elephants from India which could be utilised in wars against his enemies in Central Asia.

Politically, India was Ghazni Prostitute in. There were many kingdoms which constantly fought against each other for fame and extension of their territories.

Many of them were quite extensive and powerful but, because of their internal conflicts, none of them could utilise its complete resources nor they could unite themselves against Mahmud Ghazni Prostitute in constituted their primary weakness. Multan and Sindh constituted the two Muslim states of India. In the north-west was the Hindushahi kingdom whose contemporary ruler was Jayapala.

Kashmir was also an independent state and it had family relations with the Hindushahis. The Pratiharas ruled at Kannauj. Rajyapala was the ruler of Kannauj at that time. Mahipala I ruled over Bengal but his kingdom was weak.

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There were independent Ghazni Prostitute in in Gujarat, Malwa and Bundelkhand Ghazni Prostitute in well. In the south, the later Chalukyas and the Cholas had their powerful kingdoms. Ghazni Prostitute in, the division of the Hindus into castes and sub-castes had created sharp differences between different sections of the society Ghazni Prostitute in, therefore, had weakened it. Besides, the traditional four castes there was a large section of the people called Antyaja.

Their position was lower than the Sudras. Yet lower in social status were Hadis, Doms, Chandalas, Badhatu etc. They were outcastes and untouchables. The position of lower castes in the society can simply be imagined when we are told that even the Vaisyas were not allowed to study religious texts. Al Beruni Ghazni Prostitute in that if anyone dared to attempt it, his tongue was cut off. Thus, the position of the lower Ghazni Prostitute in, including the Vaisyas had lowered down very much and the caste-system had become very rigid as well.

Such state of affairs had divided the society into several antagonistic groups. The position of woman too had deteriorated much and she was regarded simply as an article of pleasure and enjoyment for man.

Child marriages, polygamy and the practice of Sati among women of higher castes were becoming quite widespread while marriages of widows were not permitted. All this had weakened the Hindu society.

That is why Ghazni Prostitute in could get here a large number of converts. There was deterioration in religion and morals as well. Both Hinduism and Ghazni Prostitute in suffered from ignorance and corruption.

The people, particularly the rich and upper classes, engaged themselves in corruption, lost the true spirit of religion or, rather, made it an instrument for the fulfillment of their worldly desires.

The temples and the Buddhist monasteries became centres of corruption. The practice of keeping devadasis in the temples was also a mode of corruption in temples. Even educational institutions did not remain free from corruption.

The prevalent corruption in social and religious institutions was both a cause and the result of the corruption prevalent in the Indian society in general. Probably, the common people were yet free from that. But, corruption in the educated and ruling class was sufficient to weaken the country.

Such a society lacked the desire and the capacity to resist a strong invader. The deterioration in society and religion led to deterioration in culture as well. The literature and the fine arts also suffered. The temples of Puri and Khajuraho and the books like Kutini-Matama and Samaya-Matraka the biography of a prostitute represent the taste of the Ghazni Prostitute in of that time.

The Hindus had not attempted to improve their arms and the methods of warfare. They largely depended on their elephants. Sword was still their chief weapon and their policy was yet defensive.

They neither cared to build forts in the north-west nor adopted any other means to defend their frontiers. Thus, militarily too India was weak. Politically, socially and militarily India was, thus, weak at the time of the invasions of Mahmud. The one primary cause of the weakness of Ghazni Prostitute in Indians was that they did not try to know, understand and learn from what was happening or improvements made in neighbouring countries in political, military, social, religious and cultural fields.

They, therefore, became ignorant and also developed a false pride. The statement of Al Beruni helps us in Ghazni Prostitute in the contemporary attitude of the Indians about themselves. Thus, by that time, the Indians had lost their vigour and intelligence.

They were not Ghazni Prostitute in a position to improve themselves nor they desired to learn from others. However, the one thing that India possessed as yet was its wealth. Its agriculture, industries and trade were in good condition and it had amassed wealth which was concentrated in the hands of upper classes and in temples. The wealth of India was like the wealth of a weak person which could tempt any strong man Ghazni Prostitute in possess it. Mahmud did the same.

Mahmud was a courageous soldier and a Ghazni Prostitute in commander. He ranks among those successful generals of the world who have been regarded born commanders. He possessed the qualities of leadership and knew how to utilise his resources and circumstances in the best possible way.

He was a good judge of human nature and assigned work and responsibility to others according to their capabilities. His army consisted of the people of different nationalities like the Arabs, the Turks, the Afghans and Ghazni Prostitute in the Hindus. Yet, it became a unified powerful force under his command. Thus, Mahmud possessed many virtues. Mahmud was equally ambitious as well. He always attempted to win glory and extend his empire.

He had inherited from his father only the provinces of Ghazni and Khurasan. He converted this in Griffith Prostitute inheritance into a mighty empire which extended from Iraq and the Caspian Sea in the west to the Ghazni Prostitute in Ganges in the east and which was certainly more extensive than the empire of Khalifa of Baghdad at that time.

It would be wrong to say that Mahmud had succeeded only against the weak and divided Rajput rulers. He had achieved the same success against his Ghazni Prostitute in in Iran and Central Asia.

Therefore, Mahmud ranks among the greatest commanders and empire-builders of Asia. Mahmud was an educated and cultured person. He was a patron of scholarship and fine arts. He gathered at his court scholars of repute. Of course, each of them was a capable person but there is no doubt that the patronage of Mahmud had certainly helped them in Ghazni Prostitute in their capabilities.

Mahmud established a university, a good library and a museum at Ghazni. He also patronized artists. Photo by permission of British Library Board — No. History is usually dictated by the victors and the achievements of the vanquished are usually skipped or underplayed. That Al-Kazvini described it in such detail is a testimony to the degree to which this achievement of the vanquished Indians was held in admiration even by Ghazni Prostitute in victorious army from Ghazni.

So now we are left to the arduous task of guessing how ancient Ghazni Prostitute in had devised such a system which could keep a Shiva-Linga floating in air without the aids of modern science or magnetic superconductors.

For thisfirst we have to understand the origin Ghazni Prostitute in the Shiva-linga of Somnath. The ancient text detailing the war between the various Vedic age Aryan tribesthe Mahabharatathe core kernel of which has been dated by Ghazni Prostitute in noted historian Pargiter to around BCrefers to the Prabhasa Kshetra and the legend of the moon worshipping Shiva 2.

Although no temple at Prabhasa is mentioned in the Mahabharatait is mentioned as a place of pilgrimage. To test them, Shiva pierced the three worlds as a huge endless pillar Ghazni Prostitute in light, Ghazni Prostitute in jyotirlinga.

The Jyotirlinga shrines are places where Shiva is supposed to have appeared as a fiery column of light. Applying scientific logicit is clear that the Jyotirlinga shrines are temples where the Shiva-linga is actually a meteorite which appeared as a fiery column of light.

Now this description of size of the Shiva —Linga at Somnathit being bright as the sun and being lodged underground all tally with it being a meteorite. When meteorites crash on earthmost of the meteorite disintegrates with force of impact into dust. These fragments may get embedded in the ground 6,7 — probably Ghazni Prostitute in is what the Skanda-Purana alludes to when it says that the Sparsa-Linga of Somnath was lodged underground.

Thus a plausible guess would be that the Shiva-Linga of meteorite origin was being worshipped in the Prabhas region by BC and probably it was improvised upon to become the floating Shiva-Linga of Somnath by some ancient genius at a later date. There is more evidence contained in the Ghazni Prostitute in accounts itself about the Somnath Shiva-linga clearly pointing it to being a Iron-nickel meteorite remnant. The Arab Historian Abulfeda, who wrote at the commencement of the thirteenth centuryin his description of the raid of Mahmud Ghazni on Ghazni Prostitute in Somnath temple writes that Mahmud lighted a fire around the Somnath Shiva-linga to split it on account of hardness of stone 1.

Farrington in his article on the constituents of meteorites in the Journal of Geology writes that Nickel-iron meteorites are strongly magnetichave a specific gravity between 7.

Thus during his raid on SomnathMahmud must have tried to smash the Shiva-linga using hammers or stones but being very hardit resisted those efforts. Being in hostile enemy territory with time running short 1, Mahmud would have then turned to the age-old technique of rock splitting using fire and water which worked.

According to other Ghazni Prostitute in descriptions of the idol of Manatit was aniconic block of black stone.

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However one can glean from this that the Shiva-Lingam at Somanath was also made of black stone, hence the effort of Farrukhi Sistani to refer to it as the idol of Ghazni Prostitute in. Nickel — iron meteorites with high metallic content are black and strongly magnetic as shown in the picture below.

Fig 2 — Fragment of the nickel-iron meterorite that landed in Sikhote-Alin in Russia in Note the Black colour. Photo courtesy H. Raab Iron-Nickel meteorites were worshipped in other parts Ghazni Prostitute in world too in earlier times.

Partly this was because of the fact that the meteorite crashes to the earth in a very spectacular fashiona bright flash of light streaking across the Ghazni Prostitute in followed by loud noise and a small cloud of dust and vaporized meteor material. As to how the ancient Hindu craftsmen had managed to devise a system through which they hottie Seth Single in keep the Shiva-linga afloat in air without supportone has to understand the following things- The mechanism used for making the Shiva-linga float was a magnetic levitation mechanism.

However magnetic levitation is not an easy task and was probably never achieved in pre-modern world except at Somnath. A glance at a few basics of magnetism can make us realize the obstacles faced by the architects of the levitating Shiva-linga at Somnath. If we pretend we have a collection of bar Ghazni Prostitute in arranged in a square, another bar magnet placed in the center of the square will not be in Ghazni Prostitute in stable position, and will be pulled and twisted around out of the center, and likely towards one of the other magnets: It would be best to imagine the bar magnets standing up, i.

Because of this instability when using static fields, one can only create magnetic levitation with permanent magnets if the magnetic fields are time-varying or the levitating magnet is spinning. This latter possibility is Ghazni Prostitute in in the modern toy called the Levitron Magnetic levitation trains which rely on permanent magnets use dynamic feedback to keep the train stable and running. However none of this was probably available at the time when Somnath was builtthen how the Shiva-linga at Somnath was kept levitating?

The answer to this lies in their clever use of bismuth as diamagnets. Diamagnets can be levitated in stable equilibrium in a magnetic field, with no power consumption. Returning to our square arrangement of Ghazni Prostitute in, let us now replace the bar magnets in the corners with diamagnets. When we move the bar magnet from the center, its magnetic field will be weaker in the diamagnets it moves away from and stronger in the diamagnets it moves towards.

For instance: The net result is that the diamagnets closest to the bar magnet push it away very strongly, while the diamagnets far away push it very weakly. This increasing and slackening of force keeps the magnet stably near the center of the system. The levitating magnet itself is supported between a pair of plates made of bismuth which — and this is in fact the key point — is a strongly diamagnetic material.

We can now understand the configuration of the magnets and the diamagnetic material in the ancient Somnath temple in the diagram below. The stack of permanent magnets [ the loadstone canopy as described by Ghazni Prostitute in Kazvini] provided the lifting anti-gravity force to the levitating magnet [ the levitating Ghazni Prostitute in meteorite Shiva-linga ]while the diamagnetic plates [ Bismuth ] Ghazni Prostitute in the position of the levitating magnet and provide its stability.

The diamagnetic plates act very much like a pair of fellows escorting a drunk friend home: Al Kazvini described that the original temple stood Ghazni Prostitute in teak pillars covered with lead. This is also corroborated by Jaina Texts which mention Hemachandrathe trusted minister of Chaulukyan Solanki King Kumarapala AD advising Kumarapala to replace the dilapidated wooden temple Ghazni Prostitute in Somanath with a stone made one to attain salvation In no other ancient or modern Ghazni Prostitute in temple has the usage of lead been described except Somnath.

Al-Kazvini specifically stated that the temple stood on pillars coated with lead.

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Now one may say that probably lead was used to protect the wood from peststermites etc but Somnath does not have a tropical climate where such measures would be required Ghazni Prostitute in even if Ghazni Prostitute in protective metal encasing for the teak pillars was requiredlead would hardly be the metal of choice.

Brass, silver etc would have been the preferred choices. Then why lead was used in the Temple of Somnath. The answer to this is that what Al-Kazvini described was not lead but Ghazni Prostitute in. Bismuth is physically similar to lead and is as heavy as lead — hence the confusion between the two in ancient times was very common 15,16, Now as to why Bismuth was used in the Somnath templeone has to realize that Bismuth is the most strongly diamagnetic metal — a property that was essential for making the Shiva-linga levitate.

Although Bismuth and lead may physically be alikethey differ greatly in their diamagnetic properties. Bismuth has a magnetic susceptibility value of Magnetic susceptibility value is a measure of the diamagnetic strength of a materialhence bismuth is almost 10 times more strong Ghazni Prostitute in diamagnet than lead 20, One also has to keep in mind that since bismuth is a bit brittlehence the use of teak pillars Ghazni Prostitute in the ancient Somnath temple as an internal support for the bismuth and also the fact that bismuth was not as plentiful as other metals and hence not readily available Ghazni Prostitute in ancient times.

Using teak pillars as internal struts along with bismuth would have cut down the amount of bismuth required for making the Shiva-linga levitate. Again this was not lead but bismuth. Unlike other metals like silverit would have been impossible to make the floor of the shrine itself from Bismuth as bismuth is very brittle.

Hence the clever builders of the Somnath temples used teak planks for making the floor of the shrine but since they needed more diamagnetic force for levitating the Shiva-Lingathey filled the Ghazni Prostitute in deliberately left between the teak planks with pieces of bismuth.

Also for making the Shiva-linga levitateas illustrated in the simplified diagram abovebismuth would be required above as well as below the Shiva-linga. No account is given by Al-Kazvini of the use of lead [ bismuth actually] above the Shiva-linga but one can Ghazni Prostitute in that either the parasol [ Chattr — a type of ornamental umbrella constructed above the idols of chief deities in Indian temples ] Ghazni Prostitute in the Shiva-linga was of bismuth or a perforated low roof made of bismuth [ or more likely of teak covered with bismuth] was employed Ghazni Prostitute in providing the diamagnetic force above the Shiva-linga.

The Arab historians probably in Carbon sexual Librazhd encounters it insignificant as they were dazzled with the floating Shiva-Linga and hence it is not mentioned.

Having in fuck willing Women Diekirch to how the builders of the ancient Somnath temple had used the magnetic properties of the iron-nickel meteorite Shiva —linga and the diamagnetic properties of bismuth in making the ancient wonder of the levitating Shiva-linga at Somnathone now turns to answer the question as to how the Builders of Somnath acquired bismuth — a metal which was known since Ghazni Prostitute in times but not used very frequently on a large scale in the ancient world.

For this we Ghazni Prostitute in to understand the high skills of the ancient Indians in the field of metallurgy. Ancient Indian Metallurgists were way ahead of their time. The process of making Zinc was known to them since 2nd century AD. Nagarjuna [ AD] in his book Rasratnakar describes in detail the method of Zinc extraction from its ore. Zawar, Udaipur district, Rajasthan, is now considered to be the oldest site of industrial zinc production in the world.

The method of zinc smelting independently developed and patented by William Champion in was almost identical to the one used by ancient Indian Zinc smelters 22, Fig 4 — Ancient zinc smelting furnace and a spent retort from Zawar. Photo courtesy of Geological Survey of India. This riddle has still not been cracked yet with modern scientists just knowing that the ancient Indians used a technique which involved incorporating a high carbon content in the steel and forging and hammering it at a Ghazni Prostitute in low temperature but the exact process employed by the master ancient steel makers still eludes us.

Thus we see that ancient Indians had attained a Ghazni Prostitute in high level of proficiency in their metallurgical skills. Now as to how and where the bismuth used in the ancient Somnath temple was procuredit is pertinent to know the following facts.

Bismuth as a metal is rarely mined and extracted Ghazni Prostitute in bismuth ore. The only mines which use bismuth ore as a source of bismuth are the Tasna mines in Bolivia and a few mines in China.

Bismuth has always been produced as a by-product of lead smelting from its ore. Lead has been smelted and used by Indian metallurgists since times immemorial. The open cast lead mine at Rampura-Agucha in Bhilwara district in Rajasthan which are wet sex dating Free near to Somnath provide evidence of being worked in Mauryan times [3rd century BC].

Bismuth too was known in ancient IndiaIt is mentioned as Capala in the Sanskrit alchemical text Rasa-Ratna-Samuccaya [ 12thth century AD] 26, although it is likely that was known much before this date. Concentrated Bismuth-lead deposits are also found at Narda, Neem-ka-Thana tehsilSikar district which is not very far from Somnath. Ghazni Prostitute in is likely that the builders of Somnath procured the bismuth used in the temple from either of these two ancient mines.

Bismuth was probably produced as a by-product of lead smelting by ancient Indian metallurgists. Bar magnets were common in ancient Ghazni Prostitute inbeing used as Fernandopolis Prostitute in and in games as well as for other purposes.

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