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Bythe estimate of the amount of cocaine smuggled to 3 Cynthia J. Olson the United States through Central America had jumped to 60 percent of the total. Admiral James Winnefeld, head of the U. Northern Command, recently told the United States Congress that nearly all the cocaine destined in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl the United States crosses the MexicoGuatemala border.

Ambassador to Honduras Hugo Llorens similarly estimated that approximately 42 percent of cocaine flights leaving South America for other parts of the world go through Honduras. Central America is a classic representation of the unrelenting dynamic of the drug trade over the past several decades in which improvements in one country or sub-region translate into deterioration elsewhere.

But the balloon effect is much more pernicious; all aspects of organized crime—from cultivation of drugs to production to all forms of illegal trafficking—constantly change shape as traffickers adapt to changing and persistent levels of demand and corresponding levels of profit increased competition from rival gangs, and increased enforcements.

Central America is paying a heavy price because of this constantly shifting scenario. Dudley provides an overview of drug trafficking activities in Central America dating back to the s. Dudley describes the ever changing dynamics within the international drug trafficking business during the 70s and 80s and examines how these changes have affected Central America.

These criminal networks, known locally as transportistas transportersdeveloped sophisticated transportation routes and took advantage of weakened state institutions in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl enabled them to move almost any product, including illegal drugs, and to engage in human trafficking from south to north and into the hands of larger Mexican organizations.

Mexican organizations have historically maintained a foothold in Central America, but their presence has continued to expand as Central America becomes a more important transshipment point between the Andes and Mexico. According to the U. Central America is within reach of drug-laden go-fast boats leaving the Andes. Dudley also begins to dissect the complex relationship between youth gangs, known as maras in Central America, and drug trafficking in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl in Central America, Colombia in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl Mexico.

Although these groups are sometimes lumped together, Dudley maintains that the maras are a separate phenomenon that, at times, overlap and cooperate with organized crime networks by providing security or helping to move product.

The in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl also become recruitment arenas for organized crime in some cases. He notes that organized crime in Central America is best understood within a post-conflict context that makes these countries particularly vulnerable to criminal activity. Olson combatants, even though approximately percent of combatants demobilized in good faith at the end of the conflict. Nevertheless, a small number of individuals with combat training continued to operate with access to pre-existing transnational networks and possessing automatic weapons that exceeded those drinks some Andkhvoy have to Want in the police.

They have evolved into clandestine networks that remain deeply entrenched in El Salvadoran society and now form the basis for organized crime. As a result, most of the organizations that participate in drug-trafficking in El Salvador are tasked primarily with protection and transportation of Colombian or Mexican-owned products. A third element of the organized crime structures in El Salvador are youth gangs. Conversely, the lower level gang members control a small percentage of drugs received from the cartels and sold locally.

Neighborhood cocaine 6 Introduction sales, known as narcomenudeo, drive local violence as gangs fight to control territory in order to convert cocaine into profit. Organized crime also presents a challenge to nascent institutions and political structures in El Salvador vulnerable to corruption.

Cartels are known to have infiltrated the political leadership in some areas and redirect resources into local and municipal elections in order to ensure that specific trafficking routes are protected.

Evidence of this corruption is seen in the presence of political parties that do not garner widespread public support less than in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl percent of the votebut continue to survive in certain geographic areas, particularly those that facilitate the entry of drugs and contraband into Guatemala.

Further, the related flow of laundered money moving between the United States and South America through El Salvador distorts the economy. That the Salvadoran economy is dollarized facilitates this process.

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In recent years, the country has recorded one of the highest homicide rates in the world, upwards of 60 murders perinhabitants. Nevertheless, what distinguishes Honduras from its Central American neighbors, according to Bosworth, is the coup against President Manuel Zelaya.

Human Rights Violations in Guatemala: Hearing Indigenous Voices | Cultural Survival

Prior to the coup, organized crime groups in In Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl were primarily involved in the transport of cocaine in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl from Peru or Colombia via air or sea. Generally, the planes bringing cocaine into Honduras have crash-landed in remote areas eliminating the need for landing stripes and facilitating the destruction of evidence. Additionally, the movement of drugs within Honduras is closely tied to human smuggling with the 7 Cynthia J.

Olson Zetas in particular using kidnapped migrants to demand ransoms while using them to also traffic drugs into the United States. Honduran officials cite violence at the local level—related to drug consumption and local drug-trafficking—as an additional key concern. According to Bosworth, Honduras has the largest absolute number of gang members in Central America.

While not directly involved in the transnational enterprise itself, as in El Salvador, gangs provide muscle for the Mexican organizations.

Other Features

They have also achieved territorial control in certain neighborhoods of San Pedro Sula and Tegucigalpa, where extortion serves as their primary source of income. Prisoners are often able to coordinate and execute illegal activities from inside of the prison, as well as smuggle weapons into the prison.

Nevertheless, despite these promises crime continued to increase throughout his administration. Bosworth argues that he paid little attention to security, opting in the time leading up to the coup to instead focus promoting a constitutional reform process.

At the same time, the international community protested the coup as a threat to Honduran democracy by severing diplomatic ties and in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl off other intelligence resources necessary for tracking transnational organized crime. As a result of the sudden loss of resources and information-sharing capabilities, the Honduran government was seriously limited in its capacity to challenge the overwhelming resources at the disposal of organized crime groups.

The cartels were able to take advantage of this weakness, as demonstrated by the estimated tons of cocaine that moved through in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl country during the government of interim President Roberto Micheletti.

For example, Lobo has called on the military to participate in public security operations, not only in high-crime urban areas but also in areas with social or political unrest.

This has led to accusations that the Lobo government pays little attention to human rights and does not differentiate between in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl activity and legitimate social movements. In this context, Bosworth warned that political tensions in the aftermath of the coup could prove debilitating for the fight against organized crime in Honduras.

Guatemala, she argues, is confronting a legacy of corruption and impunity rooted in the year internal armed conflict. She emphasizes that organized crime incorporates not only foreign criminal networks and local criminal organizations, but also local authorities—military, police, and civilian. In its place, Mexican cartels entered to fill the vacuum. Together, these organizations control drug-trafficking 9 Cynthia J.

Organized Crime in Central America by Politica Stereo - Issuu

Their family-oriented structures— composed of fathers, sons, and sons-in-laws—appear to coexist with the Mexican cartels and exercise control over territories and populations. The relationships these groups foster at the local level help guarantee their impunity. It has been suggested, for example, that the local police in Zacapa Caratinga Prostitute in the Lorenzanos of any attempts to arrest them and they appear to be supported by their community.

Organized crime structures are complicated not only by the relationships they have with the authorities, but also by the diversity of their activities. Guatemalan organized crime groups are linked with local youth gangs maras through retail drug markets narcomenudeo and the trade in advanced weapons.

The maras are reportedly responsible for approximately 48 percent of crime in Guatemala City and estimates in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl that between 1. Violence is exceptionally high in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl to the period of the armed conflict. Although only about 10 percent of the cocaine trafficked in the country is for local in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl or consumption, there is increasing violence associated with payment in product for transportation and protection services.

Almost all institutions—civilian, military, and police—have shown some connection to organized crime and attempts to address this corruption have created unique challenges.

Some nsa for Colombo Looking in public sector in Guatemala is also historically weak. Further, it is extremely difficult for the Guatemalan Congress to pass legislation regarding justice and security.

At present, 14 different political parties are represented in Congress. While such a divided Congress prevents any single party to control the legislature, it also reflects the difficulty of sustaining policies over time. Response Initially, the U. Despite initial delays, the disbursement of funds appears to have accelerated.

Similarly, U. Olson U. The United States has and should continue to make every effort to respond to—and actively foster—the development of both national and in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl security plans that provide a comprehensive and operational roadmap for addressing questions of long-term institutional reform and capacity building in both the security and rule of law arenas while addressing the underlying social conditions and lack of opportunity that serve as incubators for social violence.

Getting from in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl to there is not easy. The countries of Central America have very different levels of institutional capacity as well as political will to confront organized crime and support the reforms— institutional as well as social—necessary to make a difference.

Resources are essential, but financial support from the international community can only go so far if elites in the region refrain from paying taxes and politicians and societies are unwilling to increase the rate of taxation as a percentage of GDP.

Throughout the region, there is a need for an increase in domestic resources to fight crime and its underlying social causes. This necessitates fiscal reform that increases tax revenue across the board, improves the equity of the tax burden, and improves the transparency and accountability of government spending. Guatemala has a particularly poor record in this regard. Despite years of pressure by the international community to raise taxes in the wake of the peace accord, the tax rate remains one of the lowest in the entire hemisphere.

Inthe government increased social spending— not in and of itself a bad thing—but did so at the expense of the budgets for law enforcement and the judicial sector. The intense, ongoing polarization of Salvadoran 12 Introduction society is a key obstacle to the success of these efforts although there are hopeful signs of private sector involvement in prevention and employment programs to reduce youth violence.

Short-changing these nations now practically guarantees that a greater crisis will develop at some point in the near future.

Areas of priority should include what is being done elsewhere in Central America: Working preemptively in these areas is preferable to responding to a situation once it has gotten out of hand. The Central American countries themselves have taken steps to better coordinate their efforts against organized crime and to jointly seek financial and technical support from the international community, with the Central American Integration System SICA providing the institutional framework for these coordination efforts.

Olson The June SICA in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl produced strong political and diplomatic support for a four-part regional security strategy that includes 22 additional proposed projects intended to help implement the strategy. At the same time, Central American countries must take concrete steps to demonstrate their commitment to the strategy by moving beyond the planning stages and taking steps to make operational the strategy that was adopted in Guatemala in June.

The Obama administration made significant efforts in to emphasize domestic treatment and prevention programs as priority elements of its national drug control strategy. Redefining the drug abuse problem in the United States as a public health problem is beginning to translate into more resources for treatment and prevention, with additional increases of one percent and eight percent, respectively, proposed for Fiscal Year in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl The task is not only to increase law enforcement and judicial capacity, but also to address the poverty, exclusion, and lack of opportunity that provide a vast breeding ground for crime and violence throughout the region.

Endnotes 1 This introduction draws extensively from: UNODC, UNDP, October A Development Challenge Washington, D. In Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl World Bank,ii-iv and See also, http: UNDP, op. Molinas, Ricardo Paes de Barros, et.

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The World Bank, Papademetriou, and Marc R. Olson, David A. Shirk, and Andrew Selee, eds. See June S. Dudley Introduction T he U. Government estimates that 90 percent of the illicit drugs entering its borders passes through the Central American Isthmus and Mexico.

Of this, close to half goes through Central America. Mexico receives most of the media attention and the bulk of U. While Mexico is having some limited success dealing with its spiraling conflict, vulnerable States in Central America are struggling to keep the organized criminal groups at bay, even while they face other challenges such as widespread gang activity.

However, geography is only part of the problem. Armed conflicts in Guatemala, El Salvador, and parts of Honduras between and the mids laid the foundations for the weapons trafficking, money in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl, and contraband traffic that we are witnessing today. Peace accords in Guatemala and El Salvador, and police and military reform, only partially resolved deep-seeded socioeconomic and security issues, and, in some cases, may have accelerated a 18 Drug Trafficking Organizations in Central America: Transportistas, Mexican Cartels, and Maras process by which drug traffickers could penetrate in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl new, untested government institutions.

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Despite the gravity of the problem, Central America has, until recently, gotten little regional or international cooperation to combat it5.

Examples of cross-border investigations are few. Communication between in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl enforcement is still mostly done on an ad-hoc basis. Promises to create a centralized crime database remain unfulfilled. Local officials are equally frustrated by the lack of international engagement and policies that often undermine their ability to control crime, especially as it relates to alleged gang members.

Regional governments also face mixed messages from both the international community and their local populace, further hampering their efforts to combat rising criminal activity. A push for free trade in the region, for example, means more infrastructure, less centralized government control, and unfettered borders, all important parts of any organized criminal operation.

It is broken down by theme rather than by country. It provides a brief history of DTO activity in the region; descriptions of who operates the DTOs, both locally and internationally, and their modus operandi; the use of street gangs in DTO activities; DTO penetration in government and security forces; local, regional, and international efforts and challenges as they try and combat DTOs. The chapter is centered on the three countries where the problem of DTOs appears to be the most acute: Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.

Local and foreign agents interviewed in three different countries by the author indicate the managers are mainly Mexican groups who obtain the supplies from Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian groups in the source countries. These Mexican in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl Steven S. Dudley groups play an increasingly active role in all parts of a supply chain that has gone through a massive transformation in recent years and warrants a brief overview.

In the s, when coca was a little known leaf outside of Latin America, Peru, in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl Bolivia produced 90 percent of the crop and coca paste. Colombians obtained the paste in bulk, made the cocaine hydrochloride HCland exported it to the United States via the Caribbean and Central America. By the late s, the Colombians were trafficking large quantities of cocaine through Central America, principally through Honduras, and then Mexico, giving rise to the first Central American and Mexican DTOs.

Other routes through Nicaragua and Panama would eventually compete with Honduras, especially after leaders in the Guadalajara and Matta Ballesteros organizations were implicated in in Totonicapan lonelys Adult white girl murder of Drug Enforcement Administration DEA agent Enrique Camarena in Mexico in and went on the run.

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