DEBRE MARKOS UNIVERSITY GIBI GUBAE E C .. Debre Markos Girls Group Home Fundraising Week Activities. by EBA Tetra . Debre Markos at night . “The girls had difficulty doing homework at night. They didn't want to go to the library and even when they did it was difficult to get access to the. Off the track, the girl from Debre Markos, kilometres from the , Meselech has on several occasions upstaged the golden girls of.
This study focused on investigating the demographic trends of migrant youth; the push and Markos Debre of Girls the night in factors and post-migration psycho-social consequences. To achieve this objective, the following research questions were formulated: Social Cognitive theory was primarily developed by Bandura This theory assumes the dynamic interaction between behaviour, personal factors and the environment.
Social cognitive theory favours a model of causation involving triadic reciprocal determinism. In this model of reciprocal causation, behavior, cognition and other personal factors, and environmental influences all operate as interacting determinants that influence each other bi-directionally.
The conceptual Framework Push factors in the context of this study are defined as those situations at home or place of origins that repel youth to leave their residence places. Likewise, pull factors are defined as those conditions that attract migrant youth to come to towns leaving of their place of residence. The following conceptual framework was developed to investigate the push and pull factors for rural youth migration.
A conceptual model showing the push and pull factors and psychosocial consequences of youth migration. METHOD Research approach Creswell stated that qualitative research Markos Debre of Girls the night in to see the meanings that individuals give to social and human problems through listening their stories and hearing their voices.
Similarly, Woods stated that qualitative research is concerned with life as it is lived, things as they happen, and situations as they are constructed. Furthermore, Strauss and Corbin indicated that qualitative research is in order to explore the life experiences and behaviours.
The philosophical assumption Markos Debre of Girls the night in social constructivism is that individuals develop subjective meanings of their experiences, and meanings directed towards certain objects or things In accordance with Debre Markos women, children and social affairs officethe total number of youth migrants in is out of which male and females. These migrants participate in diverse activities once they come to Debre Markos.
But, we focussed on those migrants who have been in Zagazig Prostitute as house maids, commercial sex workers and daily labourers. This group of migrants were selected for they have low level of education and lack awareness regarding urban life and are vulnerable to risks. Thus, a total of 26 participants Markos Debre of Girls the night in involved in this study. Next, we tried to contact gate keepers such women in Konko Married Mansa hotel managers and employers of the day laborers.
Then, we introduced ourselves to the selected participants and spent about two hours with them so that they can build trust on us. Finally we asked if the participants are volunteer to take part in the study in the place and time they prefer. Data sources Data were collected through in-depth interview, focus group discussion, and observation. Semi- structured interview was employed to collect primary data from 6 participants.
To do this, open-ended interview protocols were employed. Using this protocol, data related to the push and pull factors for rural youth from surrounding districts and associated psycho-social consequences were collected.
Besides the in-depth interview, 3 focus group discussions were held and each discussion group consisted of an average of participants.
The discussions were conducted in Amharic language and audio data were recorded using digital media. Data analysis procedure Data collected through in-depth interview and focus group discussion with the help of digital audio recorder were first transcribed in Amharic.
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Next, the transcribed data were translated to English and read and reread thoroughly to identify the major themes and sub-themes. The coding was done by giving numbers on the side of each theme.
Finally, all the coded data were categorized into themes and subthemes. Validity and Trustworthiness of the Study In order to ensure the validity of this study, pilot test was conducted with a similar population and data that were gathered from different sources have been triangulated.
Besides, to determine the trustworthiness of the findings, the recorded data were checked twice to avoid obvious mistakes during the transcription process. The words and phrases of the informants were directly incorporated to give more space for their standpoint and to support the themes generated from data.
Ethical Considerations Ethics are the rules of conduct for research characterized by honesty, frankness and personal integrity as well as confidentiality Markos Debre of Girls the night in courtesy is measured Walliman, Understanding this, we tried to consider important ethical issues while conducting the study.
To begin with, we obtained an official support letter from Debre Markos University Department of Psychology. Next we informed participants about the aim of the study and participation was based on their full willingness and consent.
Moreover, participants were assured that any information that they give would be merely used for the Markos Debre of Girls the night in of the study and that they Almenara Prostitute in the right to withdraw at any time if they wanted so.
Moreover, anonymity pseudonyms was used in the analyses of data and the real names of the participants were not disclosed in the final report.
Thus, major themes are the push factors, pull factors and psychosocial consequences that migrants face in the new setting are discussed in detail. Under each major theme, there are sub-themes presented in this section. To support our interpretations of the themes and sub- themes quotations taken from transcribed data are included.
Out of 21 participants, 17 of them were between the age ranges of years. With regard to marital status, the majority of them were divorced ones. Male participants were those who earn a living by being employed as daily labourers in construction work while most of the females were engaged as commercial sex workers in hotels and bars or as housemaids. Salient Themes Data analysis led to the identification of different sub-themes which can be categorized under the major themes of push factors, pull factors and psychosocial consequences as presented as follows.
Push factors Participants mentioned several push factors that led them to leave their birth places and Markos Debre of Girls the night in come to Debre Markos town. The push factors are categorized under the sub-themes of economic factors e. Poverty Focus group discussants who worked as house maids and commercial sex workers indicate that rural poverty is the main driving force for rural urban migration.
They mentioned that there is a scarcity of farm land and this led them to migrate to Debre Markos. Besides, they revealed that even the available land is triggered by low productivity and there is land fragmentation as a result of divorce. This worsened the poverty level and ultimately led them to come to Debre Markos with the expectation to be free from poverty. Unemployment Most of the FGD discussants remarked that unemployment was the primary reason for them to leave their birth places.
Participants mentioned Markos Debre of Girls the night in because of the Markos Debre of Girls the night in of land in the rural area, they were forced to come to Debre Markos with the hope to get a job.
For example, the following quote taken from a 25 years old participant describes the above issue: I came from Gozamn district, Qegn Abo kebele. I did not have the chance to go to school like my age mates when I was a child… because my parents did not for they there was no one to keep cattle keeper. East Gojjam zone is one of the largest zones of the Amhara Regional State consisting of more than 20 districts.
But now we have been divorced.
And then I came to Debre markos along with one of my friends in the neighbourhood. Early marriage Interview with key informants revealed that socio-cultural factors like marriage customs force girls to shoulder family responsibilities in their tender years, long before they mature physically and psychologically.
As a result, the young women are vulnerable to domestic violence, being physically abused and harassed by their husbands who are much older than them. The succeeding quote taken from the interview conducted with a 21 years Markos Debre of Girls the night in female migrant worker illustrates this fact. I am 21 years old and I came from Aneded district, zengoba kebele.
Currently I am employed as a house maid. I got married at the age of But my life started to change dramatically.
I dropped out of as a result. I was responsible for the house hold activity. Cooking food, collect fire wood, fetching water from remote area was my day today task. Besides, my mother in law and my husband mistreated me. I escaped and came to my home but my step mother frequently nagged me. Then I decided to leave my home and came to Debre Markos following my teacher at the age of Early marriage, sexual incompatibility and lack of mutual understanding between the newly married youngsters were attributed to be the push factor for migration.
The life experience of a 22 years old migrant girl who faced the above situation describes this reality as indicated below. I came Markos Debre of Girls the night in Debay Tilatgin district, Shime kebele. I got married when I was But my husband was 30 years at that time. I had to stay with my in-laws and the whole domestic work rests upon me. Having sexual intercourse was really painful and I hated my Markos Debre of Girls the night in and his family members. Then I managed to escape, but my father returned me back to my in-laws.
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Fortunately, thanks to my aunt who lives in Debre Markos she brought me here. I stayed with her almost a year having done all household activities without any payment. Abuse by parents Children, whose biological parents do not live together reported to have been abused by their stepparents in addition to labour exploitation. One participant mentioned how he was being abused as follows: I came from Mackal district.
My father and my mother had a disagreement and hence they divorced when I was 9 years old. We were living in poverty. My step mother beat me and insulted me… Finally, I interrupted my education and managed to escape first to Amanuel then to Debre Markos.
Work overload Some of the migrant girls described that they were forced to migrate due to extreme poverty and work overload. I left my birthplace when I was 13 years old. Florence Slut in mother died of mental problem when I was 6.
My father married another woman having three children. The number of a family grew to 8. I was responsible for domestic Markos Debre of Girls the night in, cooking food, collect firewood, fetching Markos Debre of Girls the night in cleaning of cow dung…everything was up on me.
Because of this I was always late at school. And the teachers always order me to clean the toilet of the school as a punishment. My father was uninvolved in home affairs.
Need for independent life Though not common, the need for autonomy and independent life was mentioned as a cause for migration by participants. One of the participants, who is 22 years old mentioned that she left her residence to seek independent life. I am 22 years old…. I earn a living by being commercial sex worker. My father died when I was too young. But I grew with my grandparents.
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I used to look after and I had no chance to go to school at all. My grand mum always nagged me. She said you would become rude …. And she asked me to marry a husband. And Markos Debre of Girls the night in of this I left my birth place and moved to Dejen,Addis ababa …and finally back in to Debre Markos.
Pull factors From data analysis, the sub-themes identified under the pull factors for migration were need for education, and communication with past migrants who are relatives or friends. Need for education Need for educational opportunities was one of the pull factors reported to have attracted migrants to leave their residential places. Two of the young women have little babies about months old tied on their backs.
A man who recently moved into the nearby house broke into the house, dragged her off and repeatedly raped her. As she tells her story in a quiet voice, she becomes embarrassed at sharing this horrible trauma. She begins to cry softly Markos Debre of Girls the night in tears stream down her face.
The other housemaids begin to weep reliving their own devastating experiences. The second women with a baby shares her own heartbreaking, horror story. The babies on their backs are the result of these brutal attacks. Standing there I feel the need to say something.
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I struggle Markos Debre of Girls the night in my emotions and can barely speak. They each receive a small amount of money and start their own ingera making business. Ingera, a staple of the Ethiopian diet, is a large thin-like pancake made from wheat like grain.
Part of the instruction they receive teaches them the nuances of saving money in a cooperative banking enterprise. They live and work together, supporting each other in their new way of life. They are in a much better place and know it.
Marian courageously advocates for their rights at all levels — from local to the highest regional and central, government offices. We see girls as young as 12 and on average — 18yrs old.Debremarkos University colour day celebration Nov 2017/
Marian, in her quiet manner draws them out with her gentle questioning. The love Marian has for the young women is maternal and obvious.
I look up at the foreboding sky above. A huge black cloud hangs over us.