Figure 3. Citation: Rocha LEC, Liljeros F, Holme P () Simulated . An edge in this network represents one sexual encounter between two. Aggressive techniques within casual sex encounters, such as taking sexual liberties without permission or ignoring rejection, can, perhaps. James Rocha - - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (3)details Aggressive Hook Ups: Modeling Aggressive Casual Sex on BDSM for Moral.
Their network can still support the spread of disease, however. They can study this by looking only at certain types of encounters such as oral sex without condom and kissing on the mouth.
In this case, the resultant network is Rocha Sexual encounters in connected and capable of transmitting disease in the worst case scenario. Rocha Sexual encounters in, the work reveals interesting ways of combating the spread of disease. As expected, removing the most sexually active individuals does the trick. More unexpected is their discovery that removing the most frequent travellers is just as effective.
Of course, the work has important limitations. But an interesting question is how well the pattern can be generalised. Does it apply to escorts in other cultures or to other forms of commercial sex, for example? And most important of all, does it apply to non-commercial sexual contact patterns? For example, one network sample of the original network is obtained by taking all nodes and links that occurred in the period between and days; another sample is from the period between and days, and so on up to the interval and Rocha Sexual encounters in. Apart from the anonymous aliases of sellers and buyers and time stamps, posts also include the buyers' grades of the escorts' Innsbruck women Horny older in and information about the types of sexual activity performed during an encounter, divided into three categories: All posts, however, are assumed Rocha Sexual encounters in report vaginal intercourse random inspection supports this assumption.
In our simulations, for the sake of simplicity, unless otherwise stated, we use all available links and disregard the fact that they possess different levels of risk.
Most contacts between a seller and buyer happen only once. By inspection, several users report that next time they buy sex, they prefer a different escort, even if the encounter was graded good. We can expect that not all Brazilian escorts and customers of such are present in the data.
Furthermore, posting about an encounter is a low-cost action by the sex-buyer that gives him status in the community, which makes it likely that the reports from most users Rocha Sexual encounters in quite complete. For most Rocha Sexual encounters in this paper, we ignore this and study disease spread on a network defined by our data set as it is, which limits our conclusions to Rocha Sexual encounters in of temporal structure relative to various other scenarios.
The network models A common method of studying correlations in empirical contact data is to compare a network with ensembles, where some properties like the number of nodes and their degrees are kept constant and the rest is randomized.
In the randomized network Rocha Sexual encounters in used in this paper, we conserve the bi-partite structure of the heterosexual network and the number of contacts of each individual. Diverse network structures can affect disease spread  —  —one Xanthi Hot fucks in being clustering a high density of triangles.
Our Chaghcharan in Adult hookers has a large number of 4-cycles the shortest cycle in a bipartite graphand a pronounced community Rocha Sexual encounters in, probably a result of the system being geographically embedded This effect can be studied by randomizing the contact pairs in such a way that we choose two links randomly and swap the respective sex-buyers we call this new null model random topological, RT.
We do not alter the time stamps of the links; hence, the time order of the escorts' site dating Flat girls is preserved.
To remove temporal correlations, we choose two links randomly and only swap their time stamps such that the new encounter time is Rocha Sexual encounters in to the original, but the network structure is conserved this model is named random dynamic, RD. Finally, we make a third randomization, where both the temporal and network structures are removed by swapping the time stamps and contact pairs simultaneously we call this model random dynamic topological, Rocha Sexual encounters in. To put our results in the context of other levels of epidemiological modeling, we also consider two other contact models—a Rocha Sexual encounters in network approach and the dynamic network model by Volz and Meyers .
The static network SN approach considers the network of pairs, with at least one contact over a time interval of days, and assumes that contacts can happen with equal probability over all these links. This approach is common to most network epidemiological studies e. To compensate for the removal of the time stamps, we assume that each link has a certain probability of being active. The idea of Volz and Meyers's model is that vertices change partners with a probability pchange while keeping the number of partners fixed over time.
This model assumes that a vertex is always connected to someone else; however, in our network, in the interval of days, several vertices have only one or few days during which a connection is active.
This means that most of the time they are not in a position to catch a disease. To compensate for this effect, and to allow direct comparison to the simulations on the empirical network, we modify the Volz—Meyers VM model to capture the brevity of partnerships in the data. In our formulation of the VM network, each vertex has a chance pk proportional to the original number of contacts of the vertex of being active per day. This assures that over the course of days, each vertex has the same Rocha Sexual encounters in of contacts as in the original empirical network.
For each day, we connect pairs of active vertices randomly if the number is odd, the remaining active vertex is connected the next day that Rocha Sexual encounters in active vertex is available. Thus, this network has no temporal correlations. We generate VM graphs with 10, vertices—the same as the average number of vertices in the sampled windows discussed above. We obtain the degree distribution from these sampling windows as well and use it to calculate pk.
Simulation of epidemics One can model the spread of sexual infection in various ways to capture the various characteristics of pathogens and contact patterns, and also to serve different aims of explanation and prediction.
We explore the effects of temporal correlations on different levels of epidemic modeling. In a static network of finite size and non-zero transmission rate, all vertices will eventually become infected in the SI model. This is not necessarily the case in a temporal network, which makes the SI model more realistic in temporal, compared to static, contact networks.
To simulate these models in our empirical network, we first map the sampled network onto a time-ordered list. Each entry in the list is one pair of vertices and the time of the contact. Different contacts between the same pair appear as different entries in the list. Then we divide the list into intervals of days each, as mentioned above. The pairs are ordered according to their times of contact.The Church Of What's Happening Now: #630 - Jerry Rocha
The state of the vertex is updated at each new contact. A way of modeling the fact that the network is connected to a background of sexual Rocha Sexual encounters in would be to include multiple sources of infection. To keep the simulations simple, however, we leave this for future studies. Since our temporal information has a resolution of one day, we do not know the order of contacts within a day. To remove this potential bias, we randomize the order of contacts within a single day times.
The SI model is adequate for modeling Rocha Sexual encounters in early phase of an outbreak over shorter time scales than the duration of the disease. Considering that body size is an important factor affecting lizard home range size I hypothetized that the differences in body size between males and females of L. In addition, because there is consistent evidence for territorial behavior of adult males of L. This study was performed to analyse L. I What is the average home range size of L.
II Are there sexual differences in home range sizes? III Do these differences occur between juveniles and adults?
IV Is there overlap between home range areas of adult males? V To what extent do home ranges of adult females overla? VI How many females are usually associated to Rocha Sexual encounters in male home ranges?
Most rain falls from December to March whereas a period of relative drought occurs from May to Sepetember. Annual rainfall in the area varies from to mm Nimer,; Rocha, a.
For detailed description of the habitat of L. This lizard species was recently included in the Brazilian checklist of the fauna threatened with extinction in which it was considered a species insufficiently known, and believed Rocha Sexual encounters in be threatened Bernardes et al.
Collecting methods In the beach habitat I delimited an area of approximately 3.
Information dynamics shape the sexual networks of Internet-mediated prostitution.
To make it easier to locate lizard position inside the area I Rocha Sexual encounters in wood stakes 40 cm height each 10 m interval. The wood stakes were inserted in the sandy soil with the upper 25 cm sticking out Rocha Sexual encounters in sand. I made regular field trips fortnightly from December through April During each excursion all of the area was systematically searched for L.
When a lizard was found an attempt was made to capture it by hand. The lizard's original positon was located and recorded according to a cartesian axis system, in which the "y" axis was the distance Rocha Sexual encounters in m from the lizard's original position to the initial vegetation Rocha Sexual encounters in line beach width and the Graz Sluts in axis the distance from this point to the established "zero" of beach extension.
In addition, the SVL of the captured lizards was measured using a Vernier caliper to the nearest 0,1 mm and the weight in g using a Pesola spring balance to the nearest 0. Lizard sex was recorded, the individuals marked using toe-clipping Woodbury, and released at the exact place where they were first seen.
The recognition of L. To estimate L. By this method, the points that represent the several capture positions of an individual are plotted, the most external points being linked in order to form a polygon.
The area of the polygon represents the area used by that individual i. Although there are some different methods for estimating home ranges e.
Works by James Rocha - PhilPapers
In this study I just considered for estimates and analysis the home ranges of those lizards for whom I obtained four or more Rocha Sexual encounters in, which is recommended for more accurate estimates Rose, Differences between mean home range size in m2 of adult males and females and between juveniles of both sexes were tested using Student's t-test Zar, Even after successive months and, from one year to another C.
Rocha, pers. Conversely, many juveniles were recaptured at distances of 40 m up to 50 m from their original positions.
Only home ranges of individuals with at least four positions were included. Conversely, there was a considerable overlap between the home range of adult females with those of adult males Fig. In some cases, the home range area of two Rocha Sexual encounters in three females were enclosed Rocha Sexual encounters in the home range of an adult male Fig.